ALDER Alnus rubra This medium-hard Pacific Coast hardwood is a lower cost substitute for Birch. Medium in strength and light in weight, Alder works and turns fairly easily, with some tearing of grain. Used for furniture, casework, toys and woodenware.
APITONG Dipterocarpus grandifloris One of a family of strong, coarse-grained Philippine and southeast Asian hardwoods. Moderately heavy and extremely weather resistant. Often used for truck beds, wharf decking and industrial timbers.
ASH Fraxinus americana This northern U.S. and eastern Canadian hardwood is strong and known for its elasticity. Works, glues and finishes well. Often used for cabinetry, sporting goods (baseball bats, oars), garden tool handles, and bentwood furniture. Can be susceptible to powder post beetle.
BASSWOOD Tilia americana Also called Linden, this lightweight hardwood is found in the Great Lakes area of the U.S. and Canada. Works easily, holds detail well when carved, easy to laminate. Used for wood carving, moldings and millwork, as well as core and cross banding for plywood.
BEECH Fagus grandifolia A heavy U.S. hardwood, Beech is strong, shock-resistant and has can be steam bent easily. Commonly used for food containers and kitchen ware, flooring, furniture, tool handles, and containers for home breweries ("beechwood aged‰).
BIRCH Betula alleghaniensis This popular U.S. and Canadian hardwood is strong and durable. Often rotary cut into veneers. Because of wide color variation and pronounced grain, careful selection is a must. Use care in working to prevent grain tearing. Used for furniture, cabinetry, paneling and kitchen ware.
BOCOTE Betula alleghaniensis This popular U.S. and Canadian hardwood is strong and durable. Often rotary cut into veneers. Because of wide color variation and pronounced grain, careful selection is a must. Use care in working to prevent grain tearing. Used for furniture, cabinetry, paneling and kitchen ware.
BUBINGA Guibourtia demeusii This strong, heavy West African hardwood is often found in striped to mottled figure. Works well with sharp tools. Often available in wide lumber, making Bubinga popular for furniture, paneling or cabinetry
CEDAR (SPANISH) Cedrala odorata A soft-textured, usually straight-grained aromatic hardwood, Spanish Cedar originates throughout Central and South America. Works extremely well. Commonly used for carving, turning, pattern making, cigar boxes and humidors, pencils, and organ sound boards.
CEDAR (TENNESSEE RED) Juniperus virginiana Commonly called Aromatic Cedar, this popular softwood is know for its pleasing fragrance and natural insect repelling qualities. Growing in the eastern U.S., this small tree results in knotty lumber, usually with variegated coloring. Works well. Used for cedar chests, closet lining.
CHERRY Prunus serotina This popular hardwood grows in the Appalachian Mountains of the northeastern U.S. It is hard, with a straight grain and fine texture. Good bending strength and shock resistence. Works well, holds great carved detail, but difficult to stain. Used for furniture, cabinetry, carving, turnery.
COCO BOLO Dalbergia retusa A heavy, durable hardwood from Nicaragua and Costa Rica, Coco Bolo is known for wide color variation and great stability. Works well, but difficult to glue. Commonly used for accent furniture, turnings, knife and tool handles, mirror frames, scientific instruments.
COFFEENUT Gymnocladus dioicus Also known as Chicot or American Coffee Bean, this wood originates from the midwestern U.S. to Kentucky. The wood is heavy, coarse grained and durable and is often used as a substitute for Red Oak. Used for industrial timbers, occasionally for furniture.
EBONY (MACASSAR) Diospyros celebica One of a group of ebonies from the East Indies, ranging from Sri Lanka to Indonesia. This close- grained, heavy hardwood machines and turns well, but tends to dull tools and is difficult to glue. Used for turned and carved items, wall paneling, inlays, and contemporary furniture.
FIR (DOUGLAS) Pseudotsuga menziesii This northwestern U.S. and Canadian softwood is a favorite for construction. It is strong, heavy and resinous. Quarter sawn material displays "vertical grain‰ along its face. Fairly easy to work, but difficult to finish. Used in construction, doors, furniture, plywood, and industrial timbers.
JELUTONG Dyera costulata This lightweight Malaysian hardwood has a soft, firm texture. Small tap holes with natural latex plugs are prevalent - these are from extracting latex for chewing gum manufacture. Easy to work, glue and finish. Useful for wood carving, pattern making, and plywood core stock.
KINGWOOD Dalbergia cearensis Also known as Violetwood, this heavy Central American hardwood is characterized by its rich coloration. It turns and machines well, but its dust is a serious irritant to some people. Kingwood is well suited for inlays, decorative items and furniture accents.
LACEWOOD Cardwellia sublimis Also called Silky Oak, this Australian hardwood is noted for its striking lacelike figure, caused by distinctive rays throughout the quarter sawn lumber. Lacewood works well, has good bending qualities, and is well suited for inlays, marquetry and accent areas of fine furniture.
LIGNUM (VITAE) Guaiacum officinale This hard, extremely heavy wood is known for its durability, waxiness and self-lubricating qualities. Works and turns well, but rejects most finishes and resists gluing. Common uses include industrial and marine bearings, clock bearings, gavels and mallets.
MAHOGANY (GENUINE) Swietenia macrophylla A popular furniture hardwood originating in many Central and South American countries. Prized for its workability and stability, Genuine Mahogany has many uses: fine furniture, wood carving and turning, pattern making, molds and dies, boat construction, and caskets.
MAHOGANY (PHILIPPINE) Shorea spp. Several major species (Lauan, Ramin, Tanguile, Meranti, etc.) make up this family of hardwoods. Similar in appearance but not related to true mahoganies, these coarse-grained, durable hardwoods are often used for furniture, shelving, cabinets and boat building.
MAPLE (HARD) Acer saccharum Also known as Rock Maple or Sugar Maple, this domestic hardwood is prized for many figure variations: birds-eye, quilted, and fiddleback. Works well; ideal for furniture, food cutting surfaces, musical instruments, and industrial uses where stability and toughness are required.
MAPLE (PACIFIC COAST) Acer macrophyllum Similar in appearance to Hard Maple, Pacific Coast Maple is lighter in weight and not as strong. This Northwestern U.S. hardwood works well. Commonly used for inexpensive furniture, interior joinery, piano actions, and core stock for plywood.
MYRTLE Umbellularia californica This Oregon and Northern California hardwood is firm-textured, durable and resilient. Often produces wavy and quilted patterns. Somewhat difficult to work, but polishes to a smooth sheen. Used for turnery, accent and novelty items, cabinets and furniture.
NARRA Pterocarpus indicus A durable Southeast Asian and Philippine hardwood, Narra is prized for its many grain figures, ranging from rippled to fiddleback or curly. Somewhat difficult to work because of coarseness of grain, but used for furniture, musical instruments, and interior finish of ships and vehicles.
OAK (RED) Quercus rubra This popular eastern U.S. and Canadian hardwood is moderately heavy, strong and stiff. Red Oak works well with machine tools, has a naturally coarse texture when finished. Prized for furniture, cabinetry, flooring and paneling.
OAK (WHITE) Quercus alba A strong, heavy U.S. and Canadian hardwood, White Oak is known for its characteristic "fleck‰ or silver grain figure when quarter sawn. Works well with machine tools. Used for furniture, cabinetry, flooring, paneling, wine barrels, and industrial handles, ladder rungs and timbers.
OLIVE WOOD Olea spp. Different varieties of this colorful hardwood grow throughout Mediterranean Europe, East Africa and South Africa. It is strong, heavy and marbled in appearance. Olive Wood is somewhat brittle to work, but finishes well. It is used for turnery, flooring and accent furniture.
PADOUK Pterocarpus soyauxii Also called Vermillion, this decorative hardwood originates in Africa and the Andaman Islands, with one major variety native to Burma. Brick red color oxidizes and fades after prolonged exposure to air. Works well, is used for furniture, flooring and architectural accents.
PAU FERRO Caesalpinia echinata This strong, heavy hardwood is also called Brazilian Ironwood, Brazilwood, or Purnumbuco. Prized for its variegated, often marbled or snakelike figure. Somewhat difficult to work, and dust is extremely irritating to many users. Used for turnery, violin bows, inlays, violin bows.
PECAN (HICKORY) Carya illinoensis A strong, medium weight hardwood known for high shock resistance and bending strength. Somewhat difficult to machine because of coarse texture and dulling of tools. Used for furniture, sports equipment, tool handles, ladder rungs, and drum sticks.
PINE (SUGAR) Pinus lambertiana One of many Pine species native to the U.S., Sugar Pine is perhaps easiest to work. A light weight softwood, with medium texture and even grain. Works and glues easily, stains well with controllers. Used for furniture, shelving, millwork and interior trim.
POPLAR Liriodendron tulipifera Poplar grows throughout the eastern half of the U.S. It is a light weight, medium strength, stable hardwood. Easy to work, turn and glue, Poplar is usually painted because of color variation. Used for carving, pattern making, interior finish, millwork, toys, and plywood core stock.
PURPLEHEART Peltogyne pubescens Also called Amaranth or Violetwood, this colorful South American hardwood is strong and heavy. Its bright purple color oxidizes into a deep brownish purple after exposure to air. Works with some difficulty, but bends well. Used for furniture, flooring and architectural accents.
ROSEWOOD (EAST INDIAN) Dalbergia latifolia This heavy and strong, durable hardwood is grown from India and Sri Lanka to Indonesia. Variable coloration and good stability make this a good choice for accent furniture and fixtures, turnery, musical instruments, tools and measuring devices. Dust is somewhat irritating to users.
SATINÉ Brosimum paraense This tropical American hardwood is known for its distinctive gray-red to variegated yellow and red coloration. Moderately strong and heavy, Satiné works and finishes well. It is used for cabinetmaking and furniture, marquetry, fancy boxes and decorator accents.
TEAK Tectona grandis A popular hardwood from Southeast Asia, teak is strong, medium in density and highly weather resistant. This naturally oily wood is now plantation cultivated, grown and harvested, conserving the natural resource. Used for furniture, cabinetry, boats, architectural trim and flooring.
TULIPWOOD Dalbergia variabilis This beautiful Brazilian hardwood is remarkable for its pink and creamy coloration, and for its pleasant aroma when worked. Heavy and brittle, the tree is small and yields short and generally narrow lumber. Uses include inlays, game boards, small turnings and decorative items.
WALNUT Juglans nigra American Black Walnut is among the most desirable hardwoods. This medium weight, attractive wood is sawn into a variety of figures, including crotch, burl and fiddleback. Works, carves and turns extremely well. Prized for furniture, clock cases, gunstocks, and musical instruments.
WENGE Millettia laurentii A distinctive colored, coarse-textured, heavy and brittle hardwood from Africa, with contrasting dark brown, black and creamy coloration. Wenge has high bending strength and shock resistance. It works with some difficulty, but is used for furniture, floor feature strip, and accessories.
ZEBRAWOOD Microberlinia brazzavillensis This coarse, heavy African hardwood is named for its zebra-stripe appearance when quarter- sawn. Very attractive, but difficult to work because of alternating hard and soft grain. Used for furniture, veneer, game boards, small boxes and decorative items.